Past Perfect tense
It is a past of past means long past. We use it when two actions occurred. In two actions; an earlier action is used in past perfect Tense and later action in past simple tense.
Earlier action (preceding action), Later action(succeeding act)
Sub + had + action III + Obj. Sub + action II
Past perfect͠ before ͠ past simple
Past simple After Past perfect tense
- The patient had died before the doctor reached his home.
- The train had left before I reached the station.
- He had already read this whole book before I came home.
- I came after he had gone.
- She had gone from home when I came to meet her.
- They had just taken lunch when Students entered the staff room.
- I didn’t look at anything until I had finished my conversation with the prime minister of India.
- After he had gone from home, I found money in his suitcase.
- Before I went to bed, my cousin had come to me.
Some time expressing adverbs and conjunctions are followed by perfect tense:
Ever, just, recently, already, so far, yet, up to now, by the time, by + time, after, before, never, till, just then etc.
By the time, subject + verb 2nd form, subject + had + verb 3rd form (1st action).
- By the time, I reached the theatre, my friends had already come there.
- Rahul told me that He had never been to France.
- I got to know that she had not done his work so far.
- I found that she hadn’t come home yet.
- It was the best decision I had ever made.
If the work was supposed to accomplish in past but wasn’t completed, we generally express it by some verbs:
hope, expect, think, mean, intend, suppose, want
These verbs are used to denote expectations that weren’t fulfilled. In this situation, All the verbs are used with past perfect tense. Examples:
- He had wanted to go abroad but unfortunately, he lost his money.
- She had hoped to see her brother but she couldn’t.
- My father had expected to settle me in Canada (but I didn’t settle).
- He had been supposed to meet me. (but did not meet)
- He had expected to get selected for an interview. ( but could not)
- I had intended to open my café. (but I could not open it)
Note: if there is no time gap in two actions, we use Simple Past Tense, not Past Perfect Tense.
- When she scolded her child, he began to weep.
- When the teacher came, all the students sat silently.
- He got up early in the morning and finished his morning chores and then he went for a morning walk. (past routine) – no time gap
- As soon as the peon rang the bell, the students left their classes.